The working of an electric car is different from the working of a traditional gasoline-powered vehicle. As the use of electric vehicles is now greatly increasing, many people are curious to know about their working. There were a lot of flaws in the design of early electric cars, hence, most people were hesitant to buy them. But with the introduction of some best electric vehicles with great efficiency and better features, a lot of people are now turning to these.
Electric cars are cheaper than conventional vehicles and the savings they provide on fuel is another great advantage that attracted more people towards them. They play an important role in environmental protection which made them more desirable among people who are dedicated to protecting the environment. Hence, the market for the electric vehicles is rapidly increasing. Through this article, we provide a short analysis about the working of electric cars for those who are curious to know about how they work.
Difference Between Electric Cars And Conventional Cars
The major difference between electric cars and conventional cars is in the fuels they use. Conventional cars use fuels like petrol, diesel, etc., whereas electric cars use electrical energy for rotating the motor. The basic working principle of both of them is the same. They convert potential (stored) energy into kinetic (movement) energy for rotating the wheels.
In conventional cars, the energy is stored in the form of fuel, and when the fuel undergo a chemical reaction, where the hydrocarbons in them react with the oxygen in the air, the energy will be released in the form of heat that pushes the pistons which turns the vehicle’s wheels. All these processes happen inside the engine’s cylinder, hence, it is called internal combustion engines. This process produces carbon dioxide and some other poisonous gases which will be released into the atmosphere. Hence, they contribute to environmental pollution.
Electric cars also use stored energy, but it is saved in the form of electric energy. The energy is released electrochemically, hence, it does not involve any combustion. Therefore, there will be no emissions that are harmful to the environment.
Key Components Of Electric Cars
Electric cars and gasoline vehicles have a lot of similar parts, however, how they work is different. Here we mention two important parts of electric cars, which are motor and batteries. These two are present in both electric cars and conventional cars, hence, we analyze how they vary in terms of working.
The working of a motor of an electric car is different from the working of a gasoline vehicle. The engine needs to spin quickly for providing the energy that is needed for rotating the wheels, however, the speed with which an engine rotates does not decide the speed with which wheels rotate.
The force that is needed to cause the rotation is called torque. So this torque is responsible for the rotation of the wheels and their speed. When you start a vehicle that was immobile for some time, you will need more torque but less speed. But when you are overtaking a vehicle, you will need less torque and more speed.
In a conventional vehicle, the force for rotating the wheels is produced by the burning of fuels. Hence, the more speed you need, the more fuel you burn, i.e., the rate at which the fuel burns is directly proportional to the speed of the vehicle. Hence, when you slow down, the need for the energy will low and so is the burning of the fuel.
But this is different in the case of an electric car. The torque provided by the motor of the electric car will be constant irrespective of the speed of the vehicle. When the car accelerates, more electric energy will be supplied to the motor inside, and when the vehicle is going slow, the electric energy supplied will be lower.
During the early stages, the batteries used in the electric cars were not really efficient, as they were not able to supply enough energy for traveling at higher speeds or for going long distances for longer periods. But now, they utilize lithium-ion batteries which improved the efficiency of these vehicles to a greater extent. However, when compared to conventional vehicles, they have a lot of limitations in supplying enough power for the working of the engine.
The major problem associated with these batteries is that they cannot carry enough energy when compared to gasoline, hence, they have a lower energy density. However, lithium-ion batteries helped in the improvement of the performance of electric cars to a great extent. Hence, they will be an important part of electric cars in the future too. Many improvements are being made in these cars by electric car companies for enhancing their efficiency and range. It is believed that more people will turn to electric cars in the future rather than opting for conventional cars.